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ADHD: Nature, Course, Outcomes, and Comorbidity - Test
by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D., ABPP

Course content © copyright 2004-2015 by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D., ABPP. All rights reserved.

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1. The first scientific paper to describe a group of people having ADHD and related disorders was authored by: Help
William James.
Sigmund Freud.
George Still.
Melchior Adam Weikard.
2. Somewhat later, an English physician provided a much more detailed description of an ADHD-like condition in 20 children during his three lectures to the Royal College of Physicians. This person was: Help
Alexander Crichton.
Stella Chess.
George Still.
Virginia Douglas.
3. Controversy continues to exist concerning the place of a subtype of ADHD that may be a distinct form of inattention. It is called: Help
Attention deficit disorder.
Sluggish cognitive tempo.
Hyperkinetic reaction of childhood.
Defective moral control of behavior.
4. In 1994, the first edition of the DSM-IV stated that ADHD involved the following two symptom dimensions: Help
Inattention and hyperactive-impulsive
Inattention and working memory
Working memory and response inhibition
Hyperactivity and distractibility
5. Which symptoms are likely to arise first in development: Help
Antisocial behavior
Substance abuse
Oppositional disorder
Hyperactive-impulsive behavior
6. The symptoms of ADHD: Help
Occur at the same level of severity across all settings.
Vary as a function of task reward, supervision, and other factors.
Are always worse in the morning.
Occur in episodes with periods of remission.
7. Compared to the classroom setting, which other school settings are there significantly fewer problems for ADHD children? Help
When behavioral restraint is required
When task directed persistence is required
During special events (i.e., field trips, assemblies, etc.)
None of the above
8. Which of the following is one of the adjustments that was made to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD to insure that it is sensitive to the disorder across all ages: Help
The symptom thresholds (6 of 9) for each item list was adjusted to 5 for clients older than 18-years-old.
Entirely separate items were written for females.
Symptoms of oppositional behavior were included in the symptom lists.
Items reflecting the emergence of low self-esteem were added to the lists.
9. The DSM-5 diagnostic criterion that ADHD develop by age twelve: Help
Was appropriately changed from age seven in DSM-IV.
Is to be adjusted for males separately from females.
Does not apply to adults seeking treatment for ADHD.
Should be adjusted back down to age eight.
10. Discrimination of ADHD children from other groups might best be achieved by which of the following: Help
Blending the reports of parents and teachers such that one counts the number of symptoms endorsed across both sources of information
Relying on teacher reports exclusively about the child
Obtaining reports from other children who know this child well
Getting the reports of grandparents about the child
11. Mental disorders like ADHD are considered valid or "real" if: Help
Cultures define them as being disorders.
The political party in power defines them as being disorders.
Others perceive a person as requiring treatment.
There is scientific evidence that the disorder comprises a failure or significant deficiency in a universal mental mechanism (adaptation) that produces harm to those individuals.
12. The prevalence of ADHD varies as a function of: Help
Young age.
Male gender.
Chronic health problems.
All of the above.
13. Demographic information on ADHD indicates that it is: Help
More common among upper class white Americans.
More common in boys than girls.
Not found in Asian countries.
Found mainly among children of alcoholics.
14. The average onset of ADHD symptoms is often in the: Help
First year of life.
Preschool years, at ages 3 to 4-years old.
Middle school years.
Young adult years.

15. During the developmental course of ADHD, which problems are likely to arise between 6 and 12-years-old? Help
Substance abuse
Symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and aggression
16. What percentage of clinic-referred children with ADHD will likely continue to have the disorder into adolescence? Help
17. Which of the following disorders is NOT likely to be comorbid with ADHD: Help
Oppositional defiant disorder
Conduct disorder
18. Barkley concluded from his follow-up studies that past follow-up studies: Help
Completely agreed with his percentage who persisted.
Grossly under-estimated the persistence of ADHD into adulthood by relying solely on self-reports of probands.
Grossly over-estimated the persistence of ADHD into adulthood.
None of the above
19. The most common comorbid disorders associated with ADHD are: Help
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD).
Anxiety and mood disorders.
Tic disorders and Tourette's disorder.
None of the above.
20. ADHD is often associated with which of these developmental disorders: Help
Motor incoordination
Language disorders and learning disabilities
Peer relationship problems
All of the above
21. The most common problems found in the health outcomes of ADHD children are: Help
Accidental injury, sleep problems, and driving impairments.
Sleep problems, dietary allergies, and lung infections.
Driving impairments, memory disorders, and early dementia.
Mental retardation, accidental injury, and autism.
22. Clinic-referred children with ADHD are likely to have a reduction in their intelligence by a range of: Help
20-30 standard score points.
1-3 standard score points.
40-50 standard score points.
7-10 standard score points.
23. Studies on the etiologies of ADHD have found: Help
The disorder often arises from poor parenting.
Diet makes a major contribution to risk for the disorder.
Prenatal exposure to alcohol or tobacco increases risk for the disorder.
The breakdown in the American family is a major contributor to the disorder.
24. What percentage of children and adults with ADHD are likely to fall into the impaired range on various tests of EF (executive functioning)? Help
25. The brain regions identified as likely being linked to ADHD are the: Help
Left posterior hemisphere and hippocampus.
Frontal lobe, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
Brain stem and spinal cord.
Thalamus, pituitary gland, and optic pathways.
26. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption: Help
Cause a significantly elevated risk for ADHD.
Are not involved at all in causing ADHD.
Are the major cause of ADHD.
Contribute a small risk for ADHD.
27. Genetics and heredity: Help
Play a minor role in the development of most cases of ADHD.
Have not been studied for their contribution to ADHD.
Play a major role in the development of most cases of ADHD.
None of the above
28. Elevated body lead burden has been shown: Help
To have no relationship to risk for ADHD.
To have a small but consistent and statistically significant relationship to ADHD.
To contribute to nearly all cases of ADHD.
To cause at least half of all cases.
29. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo: Help
Is just a milder form of the Combined Type of ADHD.
Shows a lower risk for oppositional and conduct problems and peer rejection.
Represents a form of masked depression.
Shows no differences from the Combined Type of ADHD.
30. Which of the following have been repeatedly noted in studies of SCT children? Help
Severe and pervasive deficits in executive functioning
High levels of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder
High levels of schizophrenia and autistic spectrum disorders
Social passivity and withdrawal
31. A recent theory of ADHD argues that it comprises deficits in: Help
Inhibition, spatial reasoning, and long-term memory.
Attention, language development, and phonetic decoding.
Activity regulation, energetic levels, and social judgment.
Inhibition, executive functioning, and time.
32. Which of the following executive functions are argued by Barkley to be deficient in ADHD? Help
Working memory
Internalization of speech
Self-regulation of affect/motivation/arousal
All of the above
33. Which of the following is a clinical implication of Barkley's theory of ADHD? Help
Treatment must be at the "point of performance."
Treatment must focus exclusively on medication.
Treatment should concentrate on training missing skills.
Long-term psychotherapy is essential to symptom remediation.
34. In Barkley's theory, the four major executive functions are believed to develop via a common process which is represented by: Help
Private, covert forms of behavior that have become self-directed.
Different types of information processing.
Social learning.
None of the above.
35. In Barkley's theoretical framework, verbal working memory actually arises from the internalization of: Help
36. The ultimate disability in ADHD is believed by Barkley to be: Help
Motor coordination.
Speech and language.



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