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Executive Functioning and ADHD: Nature and Assessment - Test
by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D., ABPP

Course content © copyright 2011-2015 by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D., ABPP. All rights reserved.

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1. The concept of executive functioning (EF) arose out of the: Help
Far longer history of efforts to understand the functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC).
History of the concept of attention.
History of scientific research on the cerebellum.
None of the above
2. According to Luria, Pavlov, and Bekhterev, the over-arching function of the PFC (and hence the central meaning of the term EF) was the: Help
Programming of motor action.
Capacity to understand language.
Integration of goal-directed action.
Identification of odors using the sense of smell.
3. In Barkley's theory of EF as comprising self-regulation, which of the following are involved in his 6 types of self-directed action: Help
Self-directed private speech
Self-directed emotion/motivation
All of the above
4. In the model of EF developed by Stuss and Benson in 1986, which of these was perched at the highest level of the EF system and is believed to be its highest attribute? Help
Goal Selection
5. What made Lezak's (1995) definition of EF so refreshing in its emphasis was that EF: Help
Is purposive action.
Involves working memory.
Is essential for socially independent behavior and involves self-interests.
Involves distractibility.
6. Anderson (2002) developed a four-factor model of EF based on factor analytic studies of EF test batteries. The four factors in his model included: Help
Motor coordination, processing speed, working memory, and odor identification.
Attentional control, information processing, cognitive flexibility, and goal setting.
Attentional control, motor coordination, inhibition, and speech recognition.
Motor coordination, color recognition, spatial orientation, and emotion regulation.
7. One problem with EF test batteries is that they: Help
Take far too long to administer.
Cost too much money for patients.
Have also been used as measures of attention.
None of the above
8. Which of the following are problems identified in the history of definitions of the concept of EF? Help
Lack of a consensus definition
Lack of an operational definition of EF
Missing social significance of EF
All of the above
9. Which of the following are additional problems with current models of EF? Help
Oversight of the importance of emotion and motivation
Failure to include speech perception in the models
Use of animals to study EF
None of the above
10. Which of the following are some of the social deficits arising from PFC (hence EF) damage as noted by Eslinger (1996)? Help
Demanding and self-centered behavior
Lack of social tact and restraint
Apathy and indifference, and lack of empathy
All of the above
11. The author argues that the use of the computer metaphor for brain functioning and EF is plagued by which of the following problems: Help
Computers are designed, human brains evolved.
Computers are passive, human brains are not.
Animals move and act under their own power, computers do not.
All of the above
12. Unspoken yet clearly present in efforts to understand EF or the functions of the PFC, according to Barkley, is that to conceive of and pursue a goal that, by definition, lies ahead in time, the individual must: Help
Possess a sense of the future - they must be capable of foresight.
Ignore surrounding social distractions.
Be clairvoyant.
None of the above
13. Which of the following are commonalities identified across various concepts of EF? Help
Goal-directed action
Self-awareness over time
The retrospective function (hindsight)
All of the above
14. What is the "fuel" referring to in the following quote from the section on Commonalities in Previous Definitions of EF? "The foregoing 'cold' cognitive processes may be metaphorically compared to a computer brain in a modern self-guided missile but that missile will not leave the launch pad without fuel." Help
Interference Control
Working Memory
15. Problem-solving, according to Barkley, is the: Help
Secondary purpose of the PFC apart from human will.
The means for generating multiple possible alternative actions that may be needed when goal-directed actions (initial plans) are thwarted or unsuccessful and the plan must be revised.
Least important EF for human survival and welfare.
None of the above
16. The author believes that EF can be defined initially as: Help
Hindsight, or the capacity to evaluate previous temporal sequences.
Problem-solving during goal-directed action.
Self-regulation across time for the attainment of one's goals typically in the context of others.
All of the above.
17. In the Conclusion to the section on commonalities in definitions of EF, the author believes that "the key to identifying any human activity as being executive in nature is:" Help
Planning, problem-solving, and working memory.
Whether or not that activity is being self-directed in an effort to change subsequent behavior.
The cross-temporal organization of behavior.
Set shifting.
18. Among the issues in assessing EF by tests Barkley notes that these tests have: Help
Good internal reliability or consistency.
Very high test-retest reliability.
Superior ecological validity.
None of the above
19. EF tests are usually contaminated with (correlated with): Help
Processing speed.
Measures of attention.
All of the above.
20. A serious problem for EF tests, especially as indices of PFC functioning, is that: Help
Only a minority of patients experiencing frontal lobe injuries or those with ADHD and presumed to have a frontal lobe disorder score in the impaired range on these measures.
Only a minority of patients experiencing ADHD and presumed to have a frontal lobe disorder score in the impaired range on these measures.
They are not significantly correlated with rating scales of EF in daily life.
All of the above
21. The evidence to date indicates that if assessing how well people do in using EF in their daily life activities is important in clinically evaluating EF, then: Help
Rating scales assessing EF are superior to EF tests.
Tests of EF are superior to EF rating scales.
Neither approach is any better than the other.
There is no way to judge their ecological validity.
22. Some of the advantages of rating scales for assessing EF are: Help
Longer ascertainment window than EF tests.
Greater ecological validity in predicting major life impairment.
Not contaminated with IQ.
All of the above.
23. Which of the following is a disadvantage in using rating scales to assess EF? Help
Too expensive for use in clinical practice
Various confounding factors may influence the rater
Poor norms - not representative of the U.S. population
Do not give adequate information on sex differences in adults
24. Rating scales are often criticized for: Help
Using relatively vague references to frequency of behavior, such as "sometimes," "often," or "very often."
Having poor test-retest reliability.
Having poor internal consistency.
All of the above.



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